Dissertations by year, 2000-2009


Andrade, Tonio

Commerce, Culture and Conflict: Taiwan under European Rule, 1624-1662

Chrissidis, Nikolaos

Creating the New Educated Elite: Learning and Faith in Moscow’s Slavo-Greco-Latin Academy, 1685-1694

Hartch, Todd Ferguson

At the Service of the State: The Summer Institute of Linguistics in Mexico, 1935-1985

Hoare, Marko Atilla

The Chetnik-Partisan Conflict and the Origins of Bosnian Statehood

Johnson, Benjamin Heber

Sedition and Citizenship in South Texas, 1900-1930

Kagan, Kimberly Ellen

The Face of Battle, the Eye of Command

Lofthouse, Richard Andrews

Vitalism in English and German Modernism, c. 1900-1960: Otto Dix, Stanley Spencer, Max Beckmann and Jacob Epstein

Olcott, Jocelyn Harrison

Las Hijas de la Malinche: Women’s Organizing and State Formation in Postrevolutionary Mexico, 1934-1940

Scheid, Fernande Beatrice

Stalin, Bagirov, and Soviet Policies in Iran, 1939-1946

Shurkin, Michael Robert

French Nation Building, Liberalism, and the Jews of Alsace and Algeria, 1815-1870

Vrandecic, Josip

The Autonomist Movement in Nineteenth-Century Austrian Dalmatia

Witt, John Fabian

The Accidental Republic: Amputee Workingmen, Destitute Widows, and the Remaking of American Law, 1868-1922


Agha, Sameetah

The Limits of Empires: The British-Pukhtan Encounters: 1897

Blumenthal, Susanna L.

Law and the Modern Mind: The Problem of Consciousness in American Legal Culture, 1800-1930

Brown, Nikki L. M.

“Your Patriotism Is of the Purest Quality”: African-American Women and World War I

Chet, Guy

Degeneration and Regeneration of European Warfare in Colonial New England:  The Response of Colonial and British Forces to the Challenges of Wilderness Warfare

Craib, Raymond

Fixations, Fugitive Landscapes: Mapping, Surveying and the Spatial Creation of Modern Mexico, 1850-1930

Davenport, Stewart A.

Moral Man, Immoral Economy: Protestant Reflections on Market Capitalism, 1820-1860

De Laforcade, Geoffrey

A Laboratory of Argentine Labor Movements: Dockworkers, Mariners, and the Contours of Class Identity

Fryer, Darcy Rachel

In Pursuit of Their Interest: Community Oversight of Economic and Family Life among the South Carolina Lowcountry Gentry, c. 1730-89

Gellar, Jay Howard

Jewish Organizations and West German Politics after the Holocaust


Gill, Christopher J.

The Intimate Life of the Family: Patriarchy and the Liberal Project in Yucatan, Mexico, 1860-1915

Hillman, Elizabeth Lutes

Cold War Crime and American Military Culture: Courts-Martial in the United States Armed Forces, 1951-1973

Lopez, Rick Anthony

Lo mas mexicano de Mexico: Popular Arts, Indians, and Urban Intellectuals in the Ethnicization of Postrevolutionary National Culture, 1920-1972

Matthieu, Sarah Jane (Saje)

Jim Crow Rides This Train: The Social and Political Impact of African American Sleeping Car Porters in Canada, 1880-1939

McCarthy, Thomas Martin

The Road to Respect: Americans, Automobiles, and the Environment

Silver, Peter Rhoads

Indian-Hating and the Rise of Whiteness in Provincial Pennsylvania

Studnicki-Gizbert, Daviken

Capital’s Commonwealth: The World of Portugal’s Atlantic Merchants and the Struggle over the Nature of Commerce in the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640

Suri, Jeremi

Convergent Responses to Disorder: Cultural Revolution and Détente among the Great Powers during the 1960s

Wheeler, Charles J.

Cross-cultural Trade and Trans-regional Networks in the Port of Hoi An: Maritime Vietnam in the Early Modern Era

Woodworth, Cherie K.

The Tsar’s Decent from Caesar: Clans, Genealogy, Mythmaking, and Statehood in Medieval Russia, 1400-1550


Allina-Pisano, Eric

Negotiating Colonialism: Africans, the State, and the Market in Manica District, Mozambique, 1895-c. 1935

Chazkel, Amy E.

Laws of Chance: Urban Society and the Criminalization of the Jogo do Bicho, 1880-1940

Chester, Lucy P.

Drawing the Indo-Pakistani Boundary During the 1947 Partition of South Asia

Choate, Mark Ivan

Defining “Greater Italy”: Migration and Colonialism in Africa and the Americas, 1880-1915

Dover, Paul M.

Letters, Notes and Whispers: Diplomacy, Ambassadors and Information in the Italian Renaissance Princely State

Gerhrz, Christopher Allan

The Reeducation of Germany and the Education of the West, 1945-1949

Girard, Marion L.

Confronting Total War: British Responses to Poison Gas, 1914-1918

Gitlin, Jay Larry

Negotiating the Course of the Empire: The French Bourgeois Frontier and the Emergence of mid-America, 1763-1863

Jasanoff, Maya R.

Collecting and Empire in India and Egypt, 1760-1830

Lilevik, Line

Moments of Crisis: John F. Kennedy and the Norwegian Response to the Cold War, 1960-1964

Milanich, Nara B.

The Children of Fate: Families, Class and the State of Chile, 1857-1930

Milkes, Elisa R.

A Battle’s Legacy: Waterloo in Nineteenth-Century Britain

Monroe, John W.

Evidence of Things Not Seen: Spiritism, Occultism and the Search for a Modern Faith in France, 1853-1925

Nadaner, Jeffrey Michael

Shifting Sands: John F. Kennedy and the Middle East

Overmyer-Velazquez, Mark E.

Visions of the Emerald City: Politics, Culture and Alternative Modernities in Oaxaca City, Mexico, 1877-1920

Peterson, Sarah Jo

The Politics of Land Use and Housing in World War II Michigan: Building Bombers and Communities

Rubino, Anna C.

Secrets of the Oil World: Wanda Jablonski and the Influence of Journalism

Tsadik, Daniel

Foreign Intervention: Majority, and Minority; The Status of Jews during the Later Part of Nineteenth Century Iran (1848-1896)

Watts, Edward Jay

City and School in Late Antique Athens and Alexandria


Afkhami, Amir A.

Iran in the Age of Epidemics: Nationalism and the Struggle for Public Health, 1813-1942

Bachelor, Steven J.

The Edge of Miracles: Postrevolutionary Mexico City and the Remaking of the Industrial Working Class, 1925-1982

Boer, Weibe K.

Nation Building Exercise: Sporting Culture and the Rise of Football in Colonial Nigeria

Cagaptay, Soner

Crafting the Turkish Nation: Kemalism and Turkish Nationalism in the 1930s

Campbell, Robert B.

Inside Passage: Alaskan Travel, American Culture, and the Nature of Empire

Coleman, Jon T.

Wolves in American History

Dubler, Ariela Ruth

In the Shadow of Marriage: Windows, Common Law Wives, and the Legal Construction of Marriage

Herder, Michelle Marie

The Monastery of Saint Daniel and the Community of Girona, 1020-1370

Inboden, William C.

The Soul of American Diplomacy: Religion and Foreign Policy, 1945-1960

Kessenides, James

Before Hollywood: A Prehistory of Los Angeles

Luthi, Lorenz Martin

The Sino-Soviet Split, 1956-1966

Manela, Erez

The Wilsonian Moment: Self Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism

Ottman, Jennifer

Models of Christian Identity in Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth- Century Nahuatl Catechetical Literature

Priest, Claire

Currency Policies and the Nature of Litigation in Colonial New England

Vernal, Fiona

Inventing a “Select Class of Natives”: Christianity, Community and Land Access at the Farmerfield Mission, East Cape, South Africa, C. 1838-1999

Walker, Anders

The Ghost of Jim Crow: Law, Culture, and the Subversion of Civil Rights, 1954-1965


Langland, Victoria

Speaking of Flowers: Student Movements and Collective Memory in Authoritarian Brazil

Lansing, Charles

Brandenburg an der Havel’s Teachers, 1933 to 1953: German Lehrer Under Two Dictatorships

Levine, Roger Saul

Sable Son of Africa: The Many Worlds of an African Cultural Intermediary on the Eastern Cape Frontier of South Africa, 1800-1848

McMillen, Christian

Rewriting History and Proving Property Rights: Hualapai Indian Activism and the Law of Land Claims in the Twentieth Century

Mumford, Jeremy

Vertical Empire: The Struggle for Andean Space in the Sixteeth Century 

Nesvig, Martin Austin

Pearls Before Swine: Theory and Practice of Censorship in New Spain, 1427-1640

Plant, Alisa A.

The Re-Formation of Catholic Identity: Florimond de Raemond (ca. 1540-1601) and the Origins of the French Counter Reformation

Platt, Stephen R.

Hunanese Nationalism and the Revival of Wang Fuzhi, 1839-1923

Sasse, Benjamin E.

The Anti-Madalyn Majority: Secular Left, Religious Right, and the Rise of Reagans America

Venables, Mary Noll

In the Shadow of War: The Reign of Ernst the Pious in Seventeenth Century Saxony

Winkler, Jonathan R.

Wiring the World: U.S. Foreign Policy and Global Strategic Communications, 1914-1921


Boittin, Jennifer

Soleil Noir: The Culture and Politics of Race, Genderm and Colonialism in Interwar Paris

Charron, Katherine

Teaching Citizenship: Septimus Poinsette Clark and the Transformation of the African American Freedom Struggle

Chen, Janet

Guilty of Indigence: The Urban Poor in China, 1900-1949

Chrastil, Rachel

Rebuilding France: Rights and Responsibilities in the Provinces Following the Franco-Prussian War, 1871-1892

Cunnane, Daniel D.

The Troubles in Belfast: An Anatomy of Sectarian and Political Violence, 1920-1922

Grant, Eric Bernard

“Message in our Music”: Spirituals and the Cultural Politics of Race and Nation, 1871-1945

Grossman, Lewis

The Ideal and the Actual of James Coolidge Carter: Morality and Law in the Gilded Age

Jones, Marcus

Friedrich Flick and the Expropriation of the Rombach Steel Works, 1940-1944

Khazeni, Arash

Opening the Land: Tribes, State and Ethnicity in Qajar Iran, 1800-1911

Kim, Simon Suk Yeon

Korean Students in Imperial Japan: From Visionaries to Participants in Nation Building, 1910-1945

Landau, Emily E.

Spectacular Wickedness’: New Orleans, Prostitution, and the Politics of Sex, 1897-1917

Lentz-Smith, Adriane D.

The Great War for Civil Rights: African American Politics and World War I, 1916-1920


McDonough, Susan

Judging Your Neighbor: Litigants’ Strategies and the Importance of Witness Narratives in Medieval Marseille, 1400-1430

Peterson, Brian J.

Transforming the Village: Migration, Islam and Colonialism in French Southern Mali (West Africa) 1880-1960

Provost, Darren

Martin Bucer and the Reformation of Marriage and Divorce in Early Sixteenth Century Ulm

Seltzer, Joel D.

Framing Faith, Forging a Nation: Czech Vernacular Historiography and the Bohemian Reformation, 1430-1530

Silovic-Karic, Danja

Neither Centralism nor Federalism: The Social Democracy in Croatia, 1918-1941

Sullivan, Gregory Franzis

War of the Corms: Haeckelian Biopolitics and Oka Asajino’s Evolution and Human Life

Trumbull, IV, George R.

An Empire of Facts: Ethnography and the Politics of Cultural  Knowledge in French Algeria, 1871-1914


Antonoff, Anne Louise

Almost War: Britain, Germany and the Bosnian Crisis, 1908-1909


Barton, Thomas

Conquest and Consolidation: Seigniorial and Royal Authority in the Lower Abro Valley, 1000-1300


Cambor, Kathleen D.

On the Border: Cultures, Immigration, and the Struggle for Identity  in Fin-de-Siecle France

Celso de Castro Alves, Jose

Plebeian Activism, Popular Constitionalism: Race, Labor and Unrealized Democracy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1780s- 1830-s

Charumbira, Ruramisai

Forgetting Lives, Remembering Symbols: Women in the History of Zimbabwe

Davis, Rebecca Louise

“The Wife Your Husband Needs”: Marriage Counseling, Religion, and Sexual Politics in the United States, 1930-1980

Fabbri, Christiane Nockels

Continuity and Change in Late Medieval Plague Medicine: A Survey of 152 Plague Tracts, 1348-1599

Hart, Tanya

Sexual, Cultural, and Civic Self-Representation among African American, British West Indian, and Southern Italian Women in New York City, 1900-1930

Kleeb, Scott Michael

The Atlantic West: Cowboys, Capitalism, and the Making of an American Myth

Knezevic, Jovana Lazic

The Austro-Hungarian Occupation of Belgrade During the First World War: Battle at the Home Front

Linker, Beth O’Donnell

For Life & Limb: The Reconstruction of a Nation and Its Disabled Soldeiers in World War I America

Lipman, Jana

A Working-Class History Between Empire and Revolution, 1939-1979

Mankoff, Jeffery

Russia and the Polish Question, 1907-1917: Nationality and Diplomacy

Mayeri, Serena

Reasoning from Race: The Civil Rights Paradigm and American Legal Feminism, 1960 – 1979

Melillo, Edward

Strangers on Familiar Soil: Chile and the Making of California, 1848-1900

Michelson, Emily

Heresy, Scripture, and Reform in Sixteenth-Century Italian Preaching

Moreton, Bethany

The Soul of the Service Economy: Wal-Mart and the Making of Christian Free Enterprise, 1929-1994

Morrissey, Robert

Bottomless and Borderlands: Empires and Identities in the Illinois Country, 1673-1785

Myrup, Erik Lars

To Rule from Afar: The Overseas Council and the Making of the Brazilian West, 1643 - 1807

Paterson, Lorraine

Tenacious Texas: Vietnam, China, and Radical Cultural Intersections, 1890 - 1930

Porter, Todd Michael

Obedience to God or Man? Responses to Persecution in the Reign of Mary I, 1553 – 1558

Romano, Sally Dunne

The Dark Side of the Sun: Skin Cancer, Sunscreen, and Risk in 20th-Century America

Schneider, Wendie

The Liar’s Cloth: Producing Veracity in the Victorian Courtroom

Way, John Thomas

The Mayan in the Mall: Culture, Development, Globalization in Guatemala, 1920 – 2003

Williams, Mark

The Brittle Thread of Life: The New England Backcountry in the Eighteenth Century

Xue, Yong

Agrarian Urbanization: Social and Economic Change in Jiangnam from the Eighth to the Nineteenth Century

Ziesche, Philipp Peter

Cosmopolitan Patriots in the Age of Revolution: Americans in Paris, 1788 – 1800


Blodgett, Peter

Welcome to Wonderland: Promoting Tourism in the Rocky Mountain West, 1920-1960

Bossy, Denise Ileana

The “Noble Savage” in Chains: Indian Slavery in Colonial South Carolina, 1670-1735

Bruey, Alison

Organizing Community: Defying Dictatorship in Working-Class Santiago de Chile, 1973-1983

Delury, John Patrick

Despotism Above and Below: Gan Yanwu’s Record of Daily Learning on Power, Money and Mores

Folsom, Raphael Brewster

“This Weeping Land:” The Making, Destruction, and Rebirth of the Yaqui Mission Towns

Guettel, Jens-Uwe

Reading America, Studying Empire: German Perceptions of Indians, Slavery and the American West, 1789-7900

Guild, Joshua Bruce

You Can’t Go Home Again: Migration, Citizenship, and Black Community in Postwar New York and London

Ingram, Tammy Leigh

Dixie Highway: Private Enterprise and State Building in the South, 1900-1930

Jo, Michael

Spiritual Capitalism: Christianity, Commerce, and Conservatism in Industrial America, 1900-1950

Levithan, Joshua

Welfare and Combat Motivation in the Roman Army

Loiselle, Kenneth B.

“New but True Friends:” Freemasonry and the Culture of Male Friendship in Enlightenment France

McLeod, Kari Suzanne

Health Matters: Public Understanding of Health in 1950s America

O’Brien, Stephen Kent

On Perilous Ground: A Social and Environmental History of Escuintla on Guatemala’s South Coast, 1928-1962

Ott, Julia

When Wall Street Met Main Street: The Quest for an Investors’ Democracy and the Emergence of the Retail Investor in the United States, 1890-1930

Runstedtler, Theresa Elaine

Journeymen: Race, Boxing, and the Transnational World of Jack Johnson


Vella, Stephen Christopher

Gentlemanly Conquerors: The Domestication of the Indian Frontier and the Fashioning of Imperial British Identity, 1790-1850

Weinstein, Jodi Lynn

Subsistence and Sedition in Southwest China: Local Responses to Qing Rule in Eighteenth-century Guizhou

Woodard, Laurie Avant

Performing Artists of the Harlem Renaissance: Resistance, Identity, and Meaning in the Life and Work of Fredi Washington from 1920 to 1950

Wranovix, Matthew

Parish Priests and Their Books: Reading, Writing, and Keeping Accounts in the Late Medieval Diocese of Eichstatt

Yoshikawa, Lisa

Kuroita Katsumi and His State-Sanctioned Nation History, 1896-1937: Narrating Absolute Imperial Sovereignty and Japan’s Civilizing Mission in Asia as History


Anderson, Theodore Marvin

Reimagining Religion: The Grounding of Spiritual Politics and Practice in Modern America, 1890-1940

Aramayo, Carlos Roy

The Intellectual Origins of the Modern Bolivian Political System, 1918-1943

Arenson, Adam Isaac

City of Manifest Destiny: St. Louis and the Cultural Civil War, 1848-1877

Bailey, John Christian

Between Yesterday and Tomorrow: Discourses of Europe in Germany, 1939-1950

Cadava, Geraldo Lujan

Corridor of Exchange: Culture and Ethnicity in Tucson’s Modern Borderlands

di Bonventura, Allegra

This Little World: Family and Slavery in Old New England, 1678-1764

Driskell, Jr., Jay Winston

Two Warring Souls: Black Nationalism, Patriotism and the Roots of Independent Black Politics in Atlanta, Georgia, 1891-1924

Fairey, Kristen Ann

Mapping Status in the Elizabethan Landscape: Sir Thomas Tresham’s Architecture at Rothwell and Rushton, c. 1570-1600

Foshko, Katherine

France’s Russian Moment: Russian Émigrés in Interwar Paris and French Society

Kehler, Edward Harold

East German Reactions to Poland’s Solidarity Movement, 1980-81

Keith, Charles Patrick

Catholic Vietnam, Church, Colonialism and Revolution, 1887-1945

Marshak, Adam Kolman

Herod the Great and the Power of Image: Political Self-Representation in the Herodian Dynasty

Matteson, Carol Kieko

“Masters of Their Woods:” Conservation, Community, and Conflict in Revolutionary France, 1669-1848

McDow, Thomas Franklin

Arabs and Africans: Commerce and Kinship from Oman to the East African Interior, c 1820-1900

Meyer, Manuella

Enlightened Reason in the Tropics: Madness, Society and the State in Rio de Janeiro Brazil, 1808-1930

Nguyen, Lien-Hang T.

“Between the Storms:” North Vietnam’s Strategy During the Second Indochina War (1955-1973)

Olszewski, Todd Michael

Cholesterol: A Scientific, Medical, and Social History, 1908-1962

O’Neill, Lindsay

“Speaking Letters:” Epistolary Networks, Communication, and Community in the Wider British World, 1660-1760

Park, Hyunhee

The Delineation of a Coastline: The Growth of Mutual Geographic Knowledge in China and the Islamic World from 750 to 1500

Ransmeier, Johanna Sirera

“No Other Choice:” The Sale of People in Late Qing and Republican Beijing, 1870-1935

Rix, Rebecca A.

Gender and Reconstitution: The Family and Individual Basis of Republican Government Contested, 1870-1925

Seijas, Tatiana

Transpacific Servitude: The Asian Slaves of Mexico, 1580-1700

Shugerman, Jed Handelsman

The People’s Courts: The Rise of Judicial Elections in America

Sood, Gagan D.S.

Pluralism, Hegemony and Custom in Cosmopolitan Eurasia, ca. 1720-90, with Particular Reference to the Mercantile Arena

Stites, Jessica Leigh

Screening the Transition: A Cultural History of Argentine Documentalismo, 1976-2004

Veit, Helen

Victory over Ourselves: American Food and Progressivism in the Era of the Great War

Vivier, Brian Thomas

Chinese Foreign Trade, 960-1276

Vushko, Iryna

Enlightened Absolutism, Imperial Bureaucracy and Provincial Society: The Austrian Project to Transform Galicia, 1772-1815

Walker, Louise Elizabeth

The End of Miracles: Crisis and the Middle Classes in Mexico City, 1971-1988

Ward, Jason Morgan

Saving Segregation: Southern Whites, Civil Rights, and the Roots of Massive Resistance, 1936-1954

Warren, Wendy Anne

Enslaved Africans in New England, 1638-1700

Wei, John Chin-Chau

Law and Religion in Gratian’s Decretum

Yoon, Wook

The Grand Council and the Communication System in the Late Qing


Baldock, Charles Nicholas Martin

The Religious Imagination in British Popular Fiction and Society, 1900-1945

Boumkwo Baneni, Catherine

Paradoxes in the Anthropology of John Calvin (1509-1564): Dialectics in Renaissance Thinkers’ Views on Human Nature

Brands, Henry Stallcup

Latin America’s Cold War: An International History from Guevara to Reagan

Burson, Joshua Robert

The Relationship Between the City of Constance and its Hinterland in the Fifteenth Century

Casey, Brian Patrick

Against the Materialists: John Carew Eccles, Karl Raimund Popper, and the Ghost in the Machine

Crewe, Ryan Domenic

Building a Visible Church: The Mexican Mission Enterprise in the Early Spanish Atlantic, 1521-1600

Duncan, Sarah L.

“A Queen and By the Same Title a King Also:” Gender, Power, and Ceremony in the Reign of Mary I

Duranti, Marco Ochs

Conservatism, Christian Democracy and the European Human Rights Project, 1945-50

Feldman, Andrea

Imbro Ignajatijevic Tkalac and Liberalism in Croatia

Franklin-Lyons, Adam

Famine–Preparation and Response in Catalonia after the Black Death

Fu, Jian-chen

Society’s Laboratories: Biomedical Nutrition and the Modern Chinese Body, 1910-1915

Gilpin, Robert Blakeslee

Monster and Martyr: America’s Long Reckoning with Race, Violence, and John Brown

Heefner, Gretchen

The Missile Next Door: The Cold War Minuteman and the Arming of the Heartland

Hillis, Faith

Between Empire and Nation: Urban Politics, Community, and Violence in Kiev, 1863-1907

Irwin, Julia F.

Humanitarian Occupation: Foreign Relief and Assistance in the Formation of American International Identities, 1898-1928

Lundberg, James McMurrin

Horace Greeley and the Culture of American Capitalism, 1834-1872

Madley, Benjamin Logan

American Genocide: The California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873

McDougall, Sara Ann

Bigamy in Late-medieval France

Mulready-Stone, Kristin

Organizing Shanghai’s Youth: Communist, Nationalist, and Collaborationist Strategies, 1920-1942

O’Connell, Aaron Breault

Underdogs: A Cultural History of the United States Marine Corps, 1941-1965

Racine, Felix

Literary Geography in Late Antiquity

Robson, Laura Caroline

The Making of Sectarianism: Arab Christians in Mandate Palestine

Sackett, Andrew Jonathan

The Making of Acapulco: People, Land and the State in the Development of the Mexican Riviera, 1927-1973

Schofield, Camilla

Enoch Powell and the Making of Postcolonial Britain

Stuckey, Melissa Nicole

All Men Up: Race, Rights, and Power in the All-Black Town of Boley, Oklahoma, 1903-1939

Tate, Joshua Christopher

Advowson Law and Litigation in the English Royal Courts, 1154-1250

Thomas, Torrence Nathaniel

Papal Propaganda during the Great Schism, 1378-1417

Van Vleck, Jenifer Leigh

No Distant Places: Aviation and the Global American Century

Vejdani, Farzin

Purveyors of the Past: Iranian Historians and Nationalist Historiography, 1900-1941

Walker, Charlotte

Legal Revolutions and Evolution: Law, Chiefs, and Colonial Order in Cameroon, 1914-1955

Wang, Ping-Yuan

Writing Lives and Defining Community: Cloistered Women in the Catholic Reformation

Weise, Julie Meira

Fighting for Their Place: Mexicans and Mexican Americans in the U.S. South, 1910-2008

Williams, R. Owen

Unequal Justice Under Law: The Supreme Court and America’s First Civil Rights Movement, 1857-1883